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Analytical techniques based on emission of electromagnetic radiation produced after excitation of atoms, ions or molecules present in a sample have been around for quite a while.Usually, these techniques employ some type of energy source to promote the species present in the sample to higher energy levels from where they decay, emitting characteristic radiation that is collected, sent to a wavelength selector and detected. However, some of the emission techniques can not deal directly with the original samples and some type of treatment must precede their presentation for analysis.Therefore, the expectation of the present review on the fundamentals, instrumentation and applications of LIBS, including most recent achievements, is to help those who want to be introduced to the technique while providing up-to-date information on instrumentation, applications and its real potential for micro and remote essentially non-destructive and direct analysis.Simplicity is one of the main characteristics of a LIBS system.

Together, these devices allow producing and registering a wide ranging emission spectrum of the short-lived phenomenon induced by the laser pulse.The technique is named Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and numerous reviews have already been published addressing both general and specific aspects, in the relatively short period after the technique had undergone a renewed interest in the beginnings of the eighties.On the other hand, the technique has recently experienced an exponential growth in interest, reflected by an increasing number of publications, and, apparently, its niche in the general field of Analytical Chemistry are ready to be defined.The simplest way to produce the analytical information (spectral lines of emission generated by the analytes) using LIBS is to fire a single laser pulse on a solid sample.The impinged radiant energy of the pulse must be higher than the breakdown energy for the sample material.

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